Common toad, European toad
Value of species
Bufo bufo is the central member of the Bufo bufo species complex. The systematics of this complex remain unclear. Until recently Bufo verrucosissimus was considered to be a subspecies of Bufo bufo. The taxonomic status of populations allocated to Bufo bufo in Turkey is unclear and requires further investigation.
This species is widespread in Europe (excluding Ireland and most Mediterranean islands [though it is present on Sicily]), and northern Eurasia, with populations in parts of West Asia (Turkey, Syrian Arab Republic and Lebanon) and north Africa (Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia). In Europe, it is present in most areas (including the United Kingdom, Norway, Sweden and Finland), ranging as far eastwards as northern Kazakhstan and eastern Siberia. In the Middle East, it is found through much of Turkey, northwestern Syrian Arab Republic, and has recently been recorded from two mountainous locations in Lebanon. In Africa it has a very fragmented range in the more mountainous regions. The species has an altitudinal range of sea level to 3,000m asl, however in northern portions of the range the species occurs at much lower elevations.
Although this species is generally common over much of its range, some localized declines have been observed.
This is a widespread and adaptable species present in coniferous, mixed and deciduous forests, groves, bushlands, meadows, arid areas, parks and gardens. It is usually in damp areas with dense vegetation, and large open areas are generally avoided. The species spawns and larval development takes place in still waters and slow-moving parts of rivers and streams. It is present in many modified habitats.
- Літопис природи. Природний заповідник «Медобори». 2018, т.26. – Гримайлів, 2019. – 509 с.
- Смірнов Н., Андрющенко Т., Хлус Л. Нові надходження земноводних у фонди зоологічного музею Чернівецького університету // Сучасний музей. Наукова й експозиційна діяльність. Матеріали наукової конференції, присвяченої 145-й річниці заснування Крайового музею в Чернівцях (15 травня 2008 р.) / Ред. О. П. Затуловська, І. А. Піддубний, І. В. Скільський. – Чернівці: ДрукАрт, 2008. – С.120-124.