- Epidalea calamita Laurenti, 1768
Natterjack Toad, Natterjack
Be (II); EUHD (IV); RDBUkr: Вразливі; Reg
Value of species
This species is found in southern, western and northern Europe, ranging from Portugal and Spain, north to Denmark, southern Sweden, and as far east as western Ukraine, Belarus, Latvia and Estonia. There are isolated populations in southwestern Ireland and scattered parts of the United Kingdom (north to southwestern Scotland). It occurs from sea level to almost 2,540 m asl (in Spain). In Ukraine - north-western part within Volynska, Rivnenska and nothern part of Lvivska administrative regions.
The species is locally abundant across much of its range, especially in southern Europe. It is much more localized and is declining in the northern parts of its range (e.g. in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Sweden and Estonia). While generally declining in Poland, a large breeding population of about 500 individuals was recorded in 2002 in the Slowinski National Park. It is considered generally rare in eastern parts of its range.
This species is generally found in open and unshaded light sandy soils of coastal dunes, lowland heaths, semi-desert, high mountains, pine forest glades, gardens, parks, agricultural fields, sand and gravel quarries and meadows. In the daytime these animals hide in heaps of stones, in sandy soil and under debris. Spawning, followed by a short larval development period, takes place in sunny shallow temporary pools and lagoons. This is a pioneering species in much of southern Europe, sometimes temporarily colonizing new ponds; it is very much less adaptable in northern Europe.
Biology. Evening and night activity, at day time toads digs in soil up to 20-80 cm. Reproductive period in April-May. Female lays near 4000 roes. Development with metamorphosis lasts 50 days. Winter spends in soil burrows.