- Clupea tanaica Grimm, 1901
Value of species
Black and Azov Seas from where adults ascend rivers, migrating a short distance upstream to spawn.
Most populations declined during first decades of 20th century due to water pollution. Seems to have stabilised at a moderate level in recent times. Decline in habitat quality in the suitable estuarine ecosystems in the northern Black Sea basin (increased salinity in the limans due to water abstraction and drought) is expected to have impact in the immediate future. Still abundant in Azov Sea basin and the impacts of the threats are not expected to qualify the species for a threatened or Near Threatened category.
At sea, pelagic, in deeper layers (50-70 m) of coastal waters. Migrates from sea to mouth and lower reaches of large rivers, spawns in fresh or slightly brackish water, usually close to shore, in upper 2-4 m, in almost still water bodies as flood plains or lakes.
Anadromous. Migrates upriver at 1-2 years. Many individuals spawn 2-4 seasons. Spawners appear along coast in late January-March, enter rivers when temperature reaches about 10°C, in late April-May. Spawning starts when temperature reaches about 15°C or beyond, in May-June. Eggs are bathypelagic or sink to bottom. Spent fish migrate to estuaries and coastal lagoons or to sea near river mouths to feed. In autumn, they move to sea to overwinter. Juveniles migrate to sea or estuaries during first summer, remaining there until they mature. At sea, feeds on a wide variety of zooplankton (crustaceans), insect larvae and small fish.
- Соколов Н.Ю. Каталог колекції круглоротих і риб Державного природознавчого музею НАН України // Наукові записки Державного природознавчого музею. – Львів, 2004. – Т.19. – С. 15-28.