- Apis ruderata Fabricius, 1775
- Apis perniger Harris, 1776
- villarricaensis Asperen de Boer, 1992
- harrisellus (Kirby, 1802)
- tunstallanus (Kirby, 1802)
Large Garden Humble-bee, Ruderal bumblebee,
Value of species
One of 23 species of the subgenus Megabombus. One of 250 world known species of the genus Bombus, and one of 40 bumblebee species in the fauna of Ukraine.
Distribution: Palaearctic Region. Indigenous distribution in Europe, north Africa, Madeira and the Azores, east to the Urals.
Introductions: This species has been introduced into New Zeland (e.g. Gurr, 1957; Macfariane, Gurr, 1995) and Chile (Thorp, 2003). The species also occurs on the Azores (which had never had a continental connection), where it may be presumed to be an introduction (Yarrow, 1967).
A large species (especially the very large queens) with a long tongue, emerging in late spring, and nesting below the surface of the ground. Colonies may be large.
[[B. ruderatus is common in western Europe, specially in its Mediterranean zone. In latitude, its distribution ranges from the Moroccan Atlas, N. Algeria, N. Tunisia and S. Italy to the south of Sweden, Lithuania and Belarus. To the west, the species extends to the whole Iberian Peninsula, Madeira, the Azores, and England. It is very rare in Wales and probably absent from Ireland. The eastern limit of its range is less clear, though it includes Poland, Hungary and Slovakia and seems to reach Ukraine. Efremova (1991) mentions some findings in the upper Volga (Ulyanovskaya Oblast, Kuybyshevskaya Oblast), i. e. largely beyond the main range of the species. In S.-E. France, Switzerland, Austria and Hungary, its distribution appears to be limited by that of B. argillaceus. B. ruderatus is also present in most of the Italian Peninsula, south of Toscana. Besides, B. ruderatus has been imported in New Zealand and in Chile.
Within this vast area, the species includes several subspecies. The nominal subspecies is the common form on Madeira and in the greater part of the Iberian Peninsula. B. ruderatus siculus is found in the far-south of Spain, in the north of Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia, in Sicily and the south of the Italian Peninsula. B. ruderatus perniger is found in the British Is. and is probably the origin of the populations exported to New-Zealand and Chile. B. ruderatus autumnalis lives in the larger part of W. Europe. The well differentiated subspecies corsicola and sardiniensis live respectively in Corsica and in Sardinia]].
Bumblebees are key pollinators in many agricultural ecosystems, which has led to B. ruderatus and other bumblebees being commercially bred and introduced into non-native countries, specifically New Zealand and Chile. Since its introduction in Chile, B. ruderatus has spread into Argentina, where it has been seen since 1993. Population numbers have been declining and it has been placed on the Bioadversity Action Plan to help counteract these declines.
- Літопис природи. Природний заповідник «Медобори». 2018, т.26. – Гримайлів, 2019. – 509 с.
- Iren KONOVALOVA, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org