State Museum of Natural History
Biodiversity Data Centre

Bombycilla garrulus (Linnaeus, 1758)

  • Lanius garrulus Linnaeus, 1758
Vernacular Name
Bohemian Waxwing, Waxwing
Conservation status
Value of species
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be increasing, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern. The global population is estimated to number > c.3,000,000 individuals (Rich et al. 2004). The European population is estimated at 1,080,000-2,110,000 pairs, which equates to 2,160,000-4,220,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.15% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 14,400,000-28,150,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. Trend Justification: This species has undergone a small or statistically insignificant decrease over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007). In Europe the overall trend from 1980-2013 was strongly increasing (EBCC 2015). The species breeds in boreal forest and muskeg. It prefers relatively open forest or edge, usually coniferous e.g. spruce (Picea), pine (Pinus) and occasionally birch (Betula) forest or mixed forest. It prefers well-drained areas near major rivers, normally including dense growth of fruiting plants. In non-breeding season it is found in a wide variety of habitats with fruiting plants and at least scattered trees, including roadsides, gardens, farmland and the edges of deciduous forest. The breeding season is relatively late with egg-laying beginning in late May. The nest is an open cup of fine twigs and coarse grasses, lined with finer material including grasses, mosses, plant fibres and feathers or mammal fur and usually placed on the horizontal branch of a tree, often close to trunk. Clutches are from three to seven eggs. Its diet is predominantly fruits and insects but also includes buds of various trees, flowers, tree sap, bark, shoots and leaves, moss and lichens, spiders, snails, and varied table scraps from feeders. The species is a partial migrant, withdrawing from a large portion of its breeding range in winter (Mountjoy 2005).
Book reference
  • Котенко Т.И., Ардамацкая Т.Б., Дубина Д.В. и др. Биоразнообразие Джарылгача: современное состояние и пути сохранения // Вісник зоології. – 2000. – Спец. випуск. – 240 с.
  • Літопис природи. Природний заповідник «Медобори». 2018, т.26. – Гримайлів, 2019. – 509 с.
  • Літопис природи. Природний заповідник «Розточчя». 2018, т.32. – Івано-Франкове, 2019. – 000 с.
  • Паламаренко О.В., Різун Е.М. Тваринне населення дендрарію ботанічного саду НЛТУ України // Науковий вісник НЛТУ України. - 2019. - Т.29, №3. - С.44-47.

Taxonomic branch