- Cyprinus carassius Linnaeus, 1758
Crucian Carp, Bronze Carp
RDBUkr: Вразливі; RDBUkrCarp: NT
Value of species
North, Baltic, White, Barents, Black and Caspian Sea basins; Aegean Sea basin only in Maritza drainage; eastward to Kolyma drainage (Siberia); westward to Rhine and eastern drainages of England. Absent from North Sea basin in Sweden and Norway. In Baltic basin north to about 66°N. Widely introduced to Italy, England and France but possibly often confused with C. gibelio.
Usually restricted to densely vegetated backwaters and oxbows of lowland rivers. Also in small well vegetated lakes and channels. Tolerates high summer temperatures and very low oxygen concentrations in summer and under ice cover. Able to survive in almost completely frozen water or almost-dry habitats by burying itself in mud. Spawns in dense submerged vegetation.
Lives about 10 years. Males reproduce for the first time at three years, females at four years in central and eastern Europe, at two years in southern Europe. Spawns in May-July at temperatures above 18°C. Individual females spawn with several males. Males follow ripe females, often with much splashing. Females spawn 3-5 times during a season. Eggs are sticky and are attached to water plants. Omnivorous; feeds all day but mostly at night on plankton, benthic invertebrates, plant material and detritus. Seems to be a weak competitor, usually absent from waters with rich ichthyofauna and abundant predatory species. Very abundant in the absence of other fish species. High-bodied, fast-growing individuals in habitats with predatory fish, more elongate in habitats without predatory fish.
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