- Rhynchocypris percnurus (Pallas, 1814)
- Phoxinus perenurus Pallas, 1814
Lake minnow, Swamp minnow
Value of species
Earlier called Phoxinus percnurus, Morocco percnurus or E. perenurus. Considering the wide range of the species, the morphological variability described in the literature and the geographic isolation of some populations, a critical reassessment of the taxonomic status of these isolated populations is urgently needed. Recent molecular data suggest that it might be a species of Rhynchocypris.
Wide but highly disjunct range: lakes in Odra, Vistula, Dniepr, Volga (Oka and Kama systems) drainages, lakes in Arctic Ocean (from Northern Dvina to Kolyma drainages) and Pacific basins (from Amur to Korea and Japan). Introduced in Po drainage (Italy).
Small lakes, shallows or isolated small bays of larger lakes, swamps, artificial ponds, with abundant vegetation, turbid water, with mud or clay bottom. Prefers still water or slow current.
Spawns for the first time at 2-3 years and usually over 40 mm SL. Spawns in May-July, when temperatures reach 7-9°C. Females lay 3-4 portions of adhesive eggs among underwater plants each one season. Embryonic development lasts 10-15 days. Commonly stays in shallows among vegetation in schools of 20-80 individuals. Survives extreme low oxygen concentrations in summer and winter. Spends winter in hibernation (in northern regions) or is inactive at temperatures close to 0°C. Feeds on a wide variety of prey, from plankton to benthic animals.