NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF UKRAINE
State Museum of Natural History
Biodiversity Data Centre

Xanthium strumarium L.

Synonym
  • Xanthium arenarium Lasch
  • Xanthium canadense Mill.
  • Xanthium chinense Mill.
  • Xanthium orientale L.
  • Xanthium pennsylvanicum Gand.
  • Xanthium sibiricum Patrin ex Widder
Vernacular Name
Rough Cocklebur, Clotbur, Common Cocklebur, Large Cocklebur, Woolgarie Bur
Images
Conservation status
No status defined
Value of species
Remarks
Detail
Occurrence: dAb(A, N), AE(G), dAg, Al, dAr, Au, -Az, BH, ?Bl(I), -Bl(M), Bu, Cg, Co, Cr, Cs, Ct, Eg, Ga(F), Ge, dGg, Gr, He, Hs(S), Hu, Ir, It, Jo, Le, Lu, Ma, Mk, Rm, Sa, Si(M, S), Sk, Sl, Sn, Sr, Sy, Tu(A, E), Uk(K), [nAl, aAu(A), aBe(B, L), Bl(N), Br, By, nCy, aEg, aEs, aGe, aHb(E, N), nHo, La, Lt, nMa, Md(M), ?Mk, Mo, nPo, Rf(C, E, K, N, NW, S), aRf(CS), nTn, Uk(K, U)] (EuroMed, 2018). A species of annual plants probably originates in North America and has been extensively naturalized elsewhere. The species is monoecious, with the flowers borne in separate unisexual heads: staminate (male) heads situated above the pistillate (female) heads in the inflorescence. The pistillate heads consist of two pistillate flowers surrounded by a spiny involucre. Upon fruiting, these two flowers ripen into two brown to black achenes and they are completely enveloped by the involucre, which becomes a bur. The bur, being buoyant, easily disperses in the water for plants growing along waterways. However, the bur, with its hooked projections, is obviously adapted to dispersal via mammals by becoming entangled in their hair. Once dispersed and deposited on the ground, typically one of the seeds germinates and the plants grows out of the bur.
Book reference
  • Кузярін О.Т. Судинні рослини території торфовища "Білогорща” (м. Львів) // Наукові основи збереження біотичної різноманітності. - 2010. - Т.1(8), №1. - С.75-90.
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Experts
  • Alexander KUZYARIN, Dr, e-mail: kuzyarin@gmail.com

Taxonomic branch

Biota
Eukaryota
Plantae
Viridiplantae
Tracheophyta
Euphyllophytina
Magnoliopsida
Asterales
Asteraceae (=Compositae)