- Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus, 1758)
No status defined
Value of species
Recent change of genus from Leuciscus to Squalius (Zardoya and Doadrio 1999, Sanjur et al. 2003).
North, Baltic, northern Black, White, Barents and Caspian Sea basins, Atlantic basin southward to Adour drainage (France), Great Britain north to 56°N, Scandinavia: southern Finland, Sweden north to about Stockholm. Mediterranean basin from Var to Hérault (possibly Aude) (France) drainages. Introduced elsewhere. Naturally absent from Italy and Adriatic basin.
Habitat: Most abundant in small rivers and large streams of barbel zone with riffles and pools. Also along shores of slow-flowing lowland rivers, even in very small mountain streams. Also in large lakes, undertaking spawning migrations to inflowing streams. Spawns in fast-flowing water above gravel bottom, rarely among submerged vegetation.
Biology: Juveniles are gregarious, adults more solitary. Lives up to 15 years, females longer than males. Males reproduce for the first time at 2-4 years, females at 4-6. Maturity is influenced by environmental factors and individuals may mature much later. Spawns in May-August, when temperature rises above 12°C. Females spawn more than once during a season. Individual females spawn with several males. Males assemble at spawning grounds and follow ripe females, often with much splashing, to shallow riffles. Females deposit the sticky eggs into the gravel. Feeding larvae and juveniles inhabit very shallow shoreline habitats. Feeds on a wide variety of aquatic and terrestrial animal and plant material. Large individuals become predominantly piscivorous. Frequently forms fertile hybrids with Alburnus alburnus.
- Соколов Н.Ю. Каталог колекції круглоротих і риб Державного природознавчого музею НАН України // Наукові записки Державного природознавчого музею. – Львів, 2004. – Т.19. – С. 15-28.
- Шацьке поозер’я. Тваринний світ: кол. моногр. / А.-Т.В. Башта, В.К. Бігун, М.Г. Білецька [та ін.]; за ред. П.Я. Кілочицького. – Луцьк : Вежа-Друк, 2016. - 610 с. (Електронне видання на CD-ROM)